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Tuesday, March 30, 2010


Sarah and John Thomas Mawbey
c. 1875
Shirley, the daughter of Garnet Mawbey, one of the boys who survived the Mawbey massacre at Breelong in July 1900, sent me this photo of his parents and her grandparents [and my great grandparents], Sarah and John Thomas Mawbey.
A huge thank you Shirley!

The Sydney Morning Herald, Friday 23 November 1900
John Thomas Mawbey, sworn, said he was a farmer living at Breelong, 36 miles east of Dubbo.
He was a married man and had nine children.
In July last, Miss Kerz and Miss Clark (his wife's sister) were living in his house.
Miss Kerz used to teach a school.
Near the house witness had his old house...
On the night of the murders he was sleeping at the old house.
In his new house he left his family.
His eldest son in the new house was 14 years old.
[After getting a message from his little boy, Bertie], he went direct to the new house.
There was a track and a creek to cross.
On the way, his boy called out, and running in that direction, he found his daughter Grace lying down and groaning.
He picked her up and took her into the house.
There was a cut right across her forehead.
He then went to help Miss Kerz who was lying on the other side of the track where his daughter had been. Miss Kerz was dead...
Witness then searched for his little daughter, Hilda, and found her in half an hour in the creek, 100 yards further on.
Hilda was between 11 and 12 years of age.
In the house, he found his wife and son Percy both lying on the floor.
 He thought they were dead.
Here was Miss Clark too.
She was in her bed injured.
The Sydney Morning Herald, Monday, 23 July 1900
The deposition of Sarah Mawbey are as follows: "My" - "My name is Sarah Mawbey, I believe I am dying.
I know I am badly hurt.
Jimmy Governor hit me with a tomahawk;
I also saw Jackey.
He had a tomahawk.
I only saw two men.
I could hear more outside.
I could hear all of them.

Monday, March 29, 2010

I spoke to another very special person today who has contacted me as a result of seeing this blog. I will not reveal this person's identity unless I am given permission.


This photograph (C) Pamela Mawbey 2010
Please acknowledge my copyright if reproduce.
Thomas Keneally
The Chant of Jimmie Blacksmith (1972)
Whenever I've tried to tell people about Jimmy Governor, the part-Aboriginal man who brutally murdered my great grandmother and three of her children near Gilgandra in central west of NSW in 1900, they've looked at me blankly, like they've never heard of him.
But when I say by way of explanation - "Jimmy Blacksmith, you know, the guy in the movie, The Chant of Jimmie Blacksmith" - they straight away know who I am talking about.
It is a great pity in terms of Australian history that a fictional character is more well know than the real person on which the unreal one was based.
And that the name of the real character has been forgotten, virtually erased from popular memory.
Yet the story of Jimmy Governor is one of the most dramatic in the annals of Australian history.
Jimmy and his younger brother Joe were the last official outlaws in this country, with a price put on their heads for capture dead or alive.
Before he ran amok, Jimmy had talked about imitating Australia's best known outlaw, Ned Kelly, by derailing a train.
In the end what the two men had in common was that they both had Irish blood, took a final stand against what they saw as injustice, and were hanged in gaol.
After murdering my ancestors, Jimmy and his brother went on a killing spree of old men, women and children.
Yet in The Chant of Jimmie Blacksmith, they are depicted as heroic victims of white society.
I am sure victimisation by white society had a role to play in what happened, but there was more to it than that.
Have a look at my JIMMY GOVERNOR FORENSIC blog at

Saturday, February 6, 2010


24 JULY 1838
This photograph is copyright.
(C) Pamela Mawbey 2010
The handwritten record says: GEORGE MAWBEY of this parish (St Philip's Sydney), publican and a bachelor and ANN WILLIAMS of this parish, a spinster, were married in this church by bans with consent of father this 24th day of July in the year 1838. By me, WILLIAM COWPER, chaplain, in the presence of W WITHERS [to me it looks like a different name, like Wedress] of Sydney and Sarah KEEN (mark) of Sydney.
I took this photo of the marriage record at St Phillips Church, Sydney using a pedestal lamp I carried from home in the train in order to get enough light.
The photos of paintings of the older St Phillips and of Rev William Cowper were taken at the same time.
One of the witnesses, Sarah Keen, died 18 years later in 1856.
An inquest was conducted on 11 November 1856, but no cause of death was recorded.
There are two deaths of a Sarah Keen recorded in NSW BDMs for 1856:
Born in St George to Francis and Sarah Keen.
Born in Maitland to William and Ann Keen.

This photograph is copyright.
(C) Pamela Mawbey 2010
24 JULY 1838

This photograph is copyright.
(C) Pamela Mawbey 2010
[The two above paintings are in the St Philip's Church rectory.]

The first Anglican church in Australia, built of wattle and daub, opened on 25 August 1793 and burnt down five years later on 1 October 1798.
There is a monument to it on the corner of Bligh and Hunter Streets, Sydney.
It was built on the side of a hill, and its replacement was built on another, on the other side of a valley.
Its replacement, a stone church named St Philips (located in what is now Lang Park at the Sydney Harbour Bridge end of York Street) opened in 1810.
It was typically Georgian in style but has unusual architectural elements like the turret (church tower) on one side and what appears to be an observatory on the other.
There was a large, prominent clock on the front of the turret which seems unusual these days.
No doubt it helped many couples getting married to get to the church on time.
Looking at this clock reminded me that clocks on buildings used to be much more prevalent than they are today. There has been many a time when I have not been able to find one when I have been in a hurry to get somewhere when walking through the streets of Sydney.
As a child I recall being particularly fascinated by the majestic one on the GPO (General Post Office) in Martin Place.
The Reverend William COWPER (1778-1858) was the rector of the parish of St Philip (1809-1858) and Archdeacon of Cumberland and Camden.
He laid the foundation stone for the second St Philips, located on the other side of York Street, on 1 May 1848.

It was not consecrated until 1856 because of labour shortages caused by gold rushes.
[Source: St Philips Anglican church, Sydney and website]
The church was named 'St Philip's' as a tribute to Captain Arthur Phillip RN who commanded the First Fleet and became the first governor of the colony of New South Wales.
But for some unknown reason, the spelling of the name was not the same, with one 'l' used for the church instead of two as in the governor's surname.

Thursday, February 4, 2010


This photograph (C) Pamela Mawbey 2010
Please acknowledge my copyright if reproduce
Sydney Supreme Court,
Cnr King & Elizabeth Sts

SUPREME COURT, SYDNEY, 10 and 21 August 1837
English-born GEORGE MAWBEY was a witness for the Crown in the matter REX v. ONIONS in the Supreme Court of New South Wales, presided over by Acting Chief Justice DOWLING, on 10 August 1837.
The issues arising were malicious
prosecution, civil procedure, imprisonment for debt and perjury.
It was argued that SAMUEL ONIONS had unjustly caused JOHN RAINE to be arrested and held on bail on the false claim that he was indebted to him to the sum of 20 pounds.
Mr RAINE, a public notary, claimed he had applied to Samuel ONIONS, of King-Street, ironmonger, to supply him with agricultural implements in February 1834.
He had also given him some jointers (carpenters planes) and old cast-iron mill work to sell and credit against his account.
Someone else then brought a libel case against Mr RAINE for which he was fined and imprisoned.
When RAINE got out of gaol, Onions accused him of owing him 20 pounds.

GEORGE MAWBEY, Mr Onion's clerk, was called to depose that the jointers and ironwork had not been disposed of at the time he left the employ of ONIONS on 10th January last. He said he had always understood they were left there to be sold on commission.
Two months before the trial got underway, a couple of letters pertaining to the matter had been published in Sydney newspapers:
The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 13 June 1837
Advertisement. To the Editor of the Sydney Gazette.
On reading last Friday's Australian, I observed a letter signed ALFRED AUSTIN relative to my Advertisement Thursday last in which he states he was the author of giving notice to the public for the Sale of my Articles "and he does not think Mr ONIONS was aware of it".
In reply, I beg leave to state Mr AUSTIN did call I believe on the 24th or 25th May last, saying he had a demand against me for eight pounds from Mr ONIONS;
I told him I would see the party myself.
On the same day I had occasion to go to the bottom of BRICKFIELD HILL when I saw Mr Onions at the corner of Hunter Street who said has my collector called for the amount of the bill I hold of yours; I told him "yes, about an hour ago" but I will settle it in a few days to which Mr O replied he shall not call again (the Collector), but he shall expose you in the Newspapers and the articles shall be advertised for sale.
I do also perceive in another column of the same newspaper, a letter signed G MAWBEY, formerly clerk to the said Mr Onions, stating that I came with a pitiful tale, asking for the loan of eight pounds, which I totally deny, for I only asked for seven pounds at first and Mr ONIONS was "kind enough" to charge me one pound as interest for 14 days which I gave him as I before stated my acceptance for eight pounds;
also I insisted on leaving as collateral security the articles of jewellery; with respect to the part of Mr G M's letter, I will leave it to the public to form their own opinion how far it is consistent that I should insist on leaving my articles independent of giving my acceptance;
he further states they were accordingly "booked" in the day book;
if so, why did Mr ONIONS refuse to give me an acknowledgement, stating the number of articles left; he has also stated with regard to interest he thinks Mr Onions never received any;
let him ask Mr O if the very watch key now attached to his watch is not the same key I gave him, forming one of the articles he received which I enumerated on account of interest therein;
and should .... By your giving the above a place in your columns, in reply, will much oblige.Mr Editor, Yours obediently, LEWIS JOSEPH. June, 10, 1837.

The Australian, Friday 9 June 1837
To the Editor of The Australian
SIR, - With reference to the advertisement which appears in the Sydney Gazette of the 8th instant, bearing the signature of "Lewis Joseph", relative to some jewellery that was left in charge of Mr Onions for security for money advanced to Mr Joseph, and in reply I have to state for the information of the public that the whole of the production alluded to is a complete tissue of falsehoods from beginning to end, as I was clerk to Mr Onions at the time Mr Joseph came to Mr Onions with a pitiful tale, almost begging for the amound of 8 pounds, and which Mr Onions was kind enough to advance him.
At this time Mr Joseph insisted on leaving as collateral security the following articles of jewellery, viz: four eye glasses, two coral necklaces, two pair of ear rings, and seven brooches, all of which I duly entered in the day book, which can be inspected by any one, as to that particular fat, so that that part of Mr Joseph's advertisement as regards the quantity of articles is a most palpable falsehood.
As to the interest on the occasion, I am inclined to think Mr Onions never received, as he would be very glad to receive the principal only.
G. MAWBEY, Late Clerk to Mr S Onions, George-street, June 8, 1837.
[Source: xxx]

When I originally made this post, The Australian newspaper was in the process of being digitalised and was not available.
A copy was sent to me in February 2011 by a descendent of the Candy family, one of whom was married to a Melbourne Mawbey.
For more about Samuel Onions, click on his page in the right sidebar of this blog.
The following year he sold the 812 acre estate to ENOCH RUDDER from Birmingham who called the area 'Kempsey' after Kempsey on the Severn in Worcestershire, England.
[Source: Macleay River Historical Society Inc., 'Walks in History - East Kempsey'.]



The Supreme Court of New South Wales was originally intended to be housed in the building next door that is now St James Church of England. The construction of the Supreme Court building had been initiated by Governor Lachlan Macquarie, but his bete noir, Commissioner Bigge, made him convert it into a church.
Coincidentally, Bigges' brother-in-law, who arrived in the colony three years later, was the first minister at the new church which was dedicated to St James!
Was that a bit of nepotistic 'forward planning' on Bigges' part?
[Source: Lawlink NSW website]

The Argus, Melbourne, 29 May 1853
William MAWBEY charged driving a dray with no number on it but discharged.
The Sydney Morning Herald, Saturday 27 April 1867
Central Police Court.
WILLIAMS v MAWBEY proceedings under the Tenants Act were granted.

The Sydney Morning Herald, Thursday 23 August 1894
GEORGE MAWBEY, a contractor, of Ann-street Surry Hills, was charged in the police courts of having caused his horse to be cruelly ill-treated by permitting it to be worked whilst lame in the foreleg.
The case was brought by an inspector to the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.
Defendant was fined one pound, with costs; in default, seven days imprisonment.

This would have been George (II) Mawbey, younger brother of John Thomas of Breelong and son of George (I) and Ann Mawbey, and my great uncle.
He was aged 36 at the time.

Tuesday, February 2, 2010


When I started this MAWBEY FAMILY AUSTRALIA blog a couple of weeks ago, I did not know there were any convicts transported from England bearing the name MAWBEY. I have since found TWO with that spelling and one spelt MAWBY.
One Mawbey, Joseph (aka John) landed in Tasmania and the other, William, in New South Wales.
The Mawby landed in Tasmania and became the forbear of the Tasmanian Mawbeys.
1. Joseph (aka John) MAWBEY, a boy transported to Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) from Britain for 14 years, when not known, and then in 1835, transported for a further 7 years to an unknown secondary penal colony for local misdemeanors (stealing shoes) committed in the colony; [see MawbeyFamilyAustralia-Tasmania blog]
2. William MAWBEY, a man aged around 30, transported for 7 years to New South Wales, arriving 1840; [see Mawbey Family Australia-Victoria blog]
3. John MAWBY, a teenager aged 18, transported to Van Diemen's Land for 10 years for burglaries in Northampton including theft of a copper tea kettle. [see Mawbey Family Australia-Tasmania blog]
I later discovered that there were others with what could have been variant spellings of the Mawbey surname:
1. Joseph Moorbee, transported to New South Wales
2. Ann Morby, transported to Tasmania.
He could have been sent to one of two secondary punishment colonies - Norfolk Island or Moreton Bay.
Alternatively he may have gone to Point Puer, a special settlement set up near Port Arthur in Van Diemen's Land to rehabilitate young male convicts.

Convicted of stealing a cloak at Surrey Quarter Sessions; sentenced for a term of seven years, the standard sentence for transportation; left England 10 October 1839; arrived in New South Wales 1840; one of 230 male convicts on board the ship Woodbridge.
He was born c.1808 in Surrey, England; occupation butcher; married, Protestant, 5 ft 6 1/4 inches tall.
No former convictions.
[Source: State Library of Queensland, Convict Transportation Registeries Database]
He was granted a Certificate of Freedom.
[Source: NSW State Records Index to Certificates of Freedom]

Arrested for theft of a copper tea kettle and previous burglary and housebreaking offences in the Northumberland area with accomplices William York, John Tunnel and John Whitsey.
Tried at Lancaster Salford Assize 21 October 1841 and sentenced to transportation for 10 years.
He spent time on a hulk with accomplices York and Tunnel.
Embarked from Spithead 17 March 1842 on the Candahar and arrived in Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) on 21 July 1842. [AOT says embarked 2 April 1842; QSR says 26 March 1842]
His religion was Protestant and he could read and write.

@ LINKS - Tas Archives-MAWBY

Trade - Brickmaker
Height (without shoes) - 5ft 11 inches; Age - 18;
Complexion - fresh; Head - oval;
Hair - black; Whiskers - none;
Visage - round; Forehead - low narrow;
Eyebrows - black; Eyes - ditto;
Nose - small; Mouth - ditto;
Chin, broad; Native place,
Remarks (tatoos) - freckled sailor with flag bottle and glass J + MJ + H on ... arm; woman holding flower E x MM+B on left arm.

[Source: Archives Office of Tasmania]

He was granted a Ticket of Leave on 3 August 1847.
He was granted a Certificate of Freedom on 21 October 1851.
On 29 November 1852 he sailed from Launceston to Melbourne steerage class on the Yarra Yarra. [Source: Tasmanian Archives Office - Departures.]

He then appears to have returned to Tasmania and reoffended ...

The Colonial Times, Hobart, Tuesday, 7 October 1856
Monday 6 October, Thomas Dobson and JOHN MAWBY were placed on trial for the burglary at the house of Morton Allport, on the night of 25th August.
They pleaded not guilty.
Mr Brewer appeared for the prisoner, MAWBY.
Witness Mrs Allport deposed she saw MAWBY whilst sitting at a window seeking employment as a sweep with her servant.
She also saw him 'surveying with apparent interest' the area of the house where the break-in occurred. On 27 August, MAWBY pawned an overcoat at a pawnbroker in Argyle-street in the name of Smith. Next day he went back and pawned a hat in the name of MAWBY.

An alibi for John MAWBY was provided by Samuel Barker, of New Town, a brickmaker, who had known the defendant for nine years.
He claimed MAWBY had been at home at the time of the alleged burglary.
John MAWBY was tried at Hobart Town on 28 October 1856.
The jury found him guilty.
It appears that he was sentenced to a further 10 years of penal servitude at PORT ARTHUR gaol, but this needs to be checked.

Sunday, January 31, 2010


The Sydney Morning Herald, Saturday 13 August 1859
Family Notices. Deaths. MAWBEY. July 21st, at Parramatta River, JOHN EVAN MAWBEY, compositor, formerly of the Times office, London, aged 42 years.

Sarah Barckley Mawbey, died in 184(6) aged 8 months (b.1843) and buried in the old Devonshire Street Cemetery which was resumed for Central Railway Station, Sydney.
Edmund Mawbey, seaman, convicted of an unknown crime and incacerated in Darlinghurst Gaol, Sydney.

Saturday, January 30, 2010


Garnet Lindsay Mawbey
7th Light Horse Regiment
World War I

The ancestral MAWBEY family in the United Kingdom has a distinguished record of military service.
According to British MAWBEY family genealogist, Henry MAWBEY (1834-1921), a ROBERT MAUTEBY was a Crusader in about 1250 and his effigy as a Knight Templar is on the lid of a stone coffin in the church of MAWTBY in NORFOLK, England.

John Thomas II (Jack) Mawbey was in Sydney trying to enlist with the Australian forces for this campaign at the time when his mother and three siblings were brutally murdered at Breelong.
His regiment was disbanded so he did not go and was staying with his aunt and uncle at their home in Anne Street, Surry Hills when he was told the tragic news.

WORLD WAR I (1914-18)
Four members of the MAWBEY family enlisted in the army during World War I. Brothers Garnett and Albert, the youngest sons of John Thomas and Sarah MAWBEY of NSW and William Nathan and Nathan, sons of Nathaniel (Nathan) MAWBEY of Tasmania. All four were privates.

Garnet MAWBEY was the second youngest son of John Thomas and Sarah Mawbey, and was aged 4 when his mother and three siblings were murdered.
In February 1916, at age 19, he enlisted in the Australian Infantry Force (AIF) at Casula, south-west of Sydney near Liverpool.
He stated he was single, a farmer, and that his religious denomination was Church of England
Assigned to the 7th Light Horse Regiment, 21st Reinforcement, h
e returned to Australia in June 1919.
Garnet Mawbey is one of the soldiers in a photo of the 7th Light Horse regiment resting in the sand near Asluj (then southern Palestine now Israel) before the Battle of Beersheba on the AUSTRALIAN WAR MEMORIAL WEBSITE.
The highlight of this battle was the charge of the 4th Light Horse regiment across the desert which resulted in them securing the wells and victory.
On Wednesday 24 March 2010, Garnet's daughter Shirley identified her father in this photo as the one on the far right at the back, lying down on his right side with his legs cut off by the camera.
* SEE GARNET MAWBEY WAR PHOTO Australian War Memorial, Canberra

Albert was the brave little boy who after witnessing the brutal attacks on his mother, brother and two sisters by Aboriginal men, ran across paddocks for three-quarters of a mile to alert his father.
Albert enlisted at Dubbo stating that he was a farmer, single and Church of England.
He joined the 2nd Battalion, 19th Reinforcement and served on the Western Front and was mentioned in despatches.
He was recommended and awarded the British War Medal and the Victory Medal.
* SEE ALBERT MAWBEY WAR RECORD Australian War Memorial, Canberra

He was 18 when he enlisted on 19 February 1917.
He was single, Congregational and a dairyman.
He joined the Army Medical Corps, October 1917 Reinforcement.
* SEE NATHAN MAWBEY WAR RECORD Australian War Memorial, Canberra

He was 20 when he enlisted on 15 March 1915.
He was single, Church of England, and a butcher.
He joined the Infantry Brigade 7, Field Ambulance 7, Section C.
* SEE WILLIAM NATHAN MAWBEY WAR RECORD Australian War Memorial, Canberra

Friday, January 29, 2010

ON 24 JULY 1838


I've passed it many times on my way to and from this St Patrick's church where I sometimes attend Mass and other religious observances without realising its significance to me and my family history.
I am not sure if what the inscription says is strictly correct. The first Church of England erected in Sydney, built of wattle and daub, burnt down on 1 October 1798. It was replaced by a new stone church, called St Philip's (one 'l' not two) and named after Captain Arthur Phillip who had led the First Fleet from England and founded a convict settlement in Sydney Cove.
The original St Philip's did not open until 1810. When it was found to be structurally unsound, the foundation stone for its replacement was laid in 1848. This church was not consecrated until 1856.

In this monochrome painting by Fleury, what looked like what I think was an observatory on the right hand side of St Philip's Church of England, has gone.
Astronomy has played a big part in Australia's history. Captain James Cook was in the Southern hemisphere to observe the transit of Venus when he decided to claim the east coast of New Holland on behalf of Britain.
There was an official astronomer, Leiutenant William Dawes, who came on the Sirius with the First Fleet and established the first observatory at Dawes Point west of Sydney Cove. The present Sydney Observatory located on Observatory Hill near the southern approach to the Sydney Harbour Bridge was built in 1858.
St Patrick's Catholic church on Church Hill was dedicated in 1844.


George Mawbey (III) was living with his aunt and uncle, Sarah and John Thomas Mawbey, and their children at Breelong when the murders occurred.
He had moved there from his parents' home in inner Sydney for health reasons.
Meantime, Sarah and John's eldest boy, John Thomas II (Jack) was staying with George (III)'s parents at their home at Anne Street, Surry Hills.
Jack had gone to the city to try and enlist to go to the Boer War.
He had succeeded, but his regiment was subseqently disbanded and he never went to South Africa.

George (III)'s father, George (II), had married Nellie SMITH at Petersham, Sydney in 1885.
They had four children as far as I have been able to ascertain, two girls and a boy.
The only son, George (III) was born in 1887, and was 13 when he escaped being murdered at Breelong by hiding under a bed.

George (II), like his father, George (I), was also involved in a court case.
According to the Sydney Morning Herald of 23 August 1894, a George Mawbey of Anne Street, Surry Hills, was fined for cruelty for his horse which he was forcing to work when it was lame.
He was successfully prosecuted by an inspector for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and fined.
George (II) would have been aged 36 at the time.

George (II)'s only son, George (III), appears to have remained a bachelor with no issue, but I need to do more research on him.

It now appear that George (II) took his wife and family to live near Little Hartley on the way to Lithgow.
They lived at the Rose Inn which was later run as a guest house by one of his daughters, Violet, and his son George (III) who went by the name of 'Jack'.
It was common practice in those days for the eldest son to be named after his father.
So to avoid confusion, the son was called 'Jack'.


Friday, 10 July 1900, between 11pm and midnight, mid-winter
When Mr John Mawbey, 51, arrived at the scene, he found his eldest daughter, Grace, 16, dying.
He then found the school teacher, Ellen Kerz, 20, dead.
Already shocked and heartbroken, he then went looking for the youngest of his two girls, Hilda, 11.
He found her dead in the creek.
All three young women had their heads smashed in.
The weapons used to kill them had been a stick called a 'boondee' weighing around 3 lb and a club called a 'nulla nulla'.
Inside the house, John Mawbey, found his son Percy, 14, dead, his head smashed in and his spine almost severed.
His wife, Sarah Mawbey, 44, was still alive but with her brain protruding from her shattered skull.
So too was Elsie Clarke, 15, Sarah's younger sister whom she had adopted after their mother died.
She had been hit on the side of the head.
The weapon used on these three victims was a tomahawk.
John Mawbey's two youngest boys, who had been asleep in the kitchen, a separate building at the back of the house, Cecil, 7 and Garnet, 4, were unharmed.
So too was George Mawbey, 13, their cousin, who had hidden under a bed.
Two of John Mawbey's other three sons, Reginald, 18, and Sydney, 13, had been with with him at the old inn where the family had lived until moving into their new house in January 1900.
John Thomas Jnr, 20, had been in Sydney staying with his father's younger brother, George Mawbey, father of the boy George who hid under the bed.
The house was in Ann Street, Surry Hills, not far away from Darlinghurst Gaol where Jimmy Governor ended up.
Grace died on the Sunday night and her mother, Sarah, on the Wednesday night.
Elsie survived but was permanently deaf as a result of her head injuries.

The Sydney Morning Herald, Monday 23 July 1900
Victims Horribly Mutilated. Terrible wounds were inflicted on the victims.
Hilda Mawbey, who was killed, has a bruise on the corner of the left eye, a bruise on the forehead and over the left eye, and her skull is broken in behind the left ear.

Percy Mawbey, also killed, had a cut through the right ear and a cut 3 inches wide across the right side of the neck, penetrating the vertebrae column to the neck.
His skull was also fractured to the right ear; he has a wound on the back part of his head, a fracture on the crown of the skull, a cut across the back part of his head and a bruise on the forehead.
Miss Kerz, also found dead, had two bruises extending from the left ear to within an inch of the mouth, and both jawbones were broken.
There was a bruise across the right eye extending back to the ear, a wound on the left temple, and the skull was broken in about 5 inches over the left ear.
The other victims who are still alive are Mrs Mawbey who had the back of the skull fractured and head and arms hacked about with a tomahawk, a large gash across the back of the neck and several other wounds.
Grace Mawbey is unconscious, and has her forehead broken in over the eye, and other wounds.
Elsie Clarke has several wounds about the head, and is also unconscious.

The Sydney Morning Herald, Monday 23 July 1900
Tragedy Near Gilgandra.
Family Attacked by Aboriginals.
Four persons brutally murdered.
Horrible injuries to others.
Recovery regarded as hopeless.
Lucky escape of a child.
Scene of the murder.
Fiendish cruelty.
Gilgandra Saturday ... Later.
The scene of the murder baffles description.
Percy Mawbey's head is nearly severed from his body by a blow on the neck, apparently from a tomahawk.
Miss Kerz was wearing a flanelette nightdress, and the stick that she was killed with, which is an aboriginal weapon not unlike a nulla-nulla, is covered with blood and the fluff from the night dress.
The door of the room where the females slept was smashed in with a tomahawk.
As soon as the inmates woke and saw the blacks, Miss Kerz and Grace Mawbey rushed outside towards where the men were sleeping, about three-quarters of a mile away.
The two girls were probably running hand in hand when they were overtaken and knocked down with sticks and a tomahawk.
The little boy, aged about 8, who was concealed under the bed, heard some of the blacks say, "There is one more boy yet: we must get him."
A black who was posted outside the door then sang out with an oath,"Sail into them, Jack: don't give any of them a chance: bash all their brains out."

The Sydney Morning Herald, Monday, 23 July 1900
Telegram to the Premier.
Action of the Police.
The Premier [Sir William John Lyne, KCMG] received a telegram on Saturday morning informing him that a brutal murder had been committed at Gilgandra, about 30 miles from Dubbo.
The crime was committed by two aboriginals known as "Tommy" and "Jimmy", accompanied by two others.
It was stated that the premises of Mr Mawbey at Gilgandra were entered by the men late on Friday night.
Miss Kerz, a school teacher, was killed as were also a boy named Percival Mawbey, and a girl, Hilda Mawbey, and three were likewise dangerously wounded, Mrs Mawbey, Grace Mawbey and Elsie Clarke.
It is said the police were on the scene at 3 o'clock in the morning.
The men "Tommy" and "Jimmy" are well known in the district as being violent characters, and have been watched by the police for some time past.
The Premier states that he has suggested to Mr See (Colonial Secretary) that the police should search along the western side of the railway, and that special attention should be given to the mountains in the neighbourhood.


In AUGUST 1891, the Department of Public Instruction agreed to the establishment of a Provisional or Home School at Breelong West for the education of the MAWBEY children and the children of neighbouring families, LEWIS, McDONALD and McKEOWN.

Public School, Gilgandra, 29th August 1891.
Your Memorandum of 20th instant referring to Establishment of Provisional or Home School at Breelong West.
Sir, I have the honour to report that in accordance with your request I have visited the above neighbourhood and consider that a Provisional School would be maintained there.
There are at present four families who would at once send children, and there are two more families who will reside close at hand immediately on their selections being conferred.
Moubey's (sic) family live in the first house passed in going from Gilgandra to Mundooran, being eleven miles distant from here.
Names of children herewith:McKeown James 13 yrs, Jane 10 yrs, Bella 8 yrs;
Mowbey (sic) John T 11 yrs,
Reginald 9 yrs, Grace 7 yrs, Percival 6 yrs, Sydney 4 yrs; Clarke John 15 yrs, Elsie 10 yrs; [Mowbeys (sic) and Clarkes are related and live together]
Lewis James W 10 yrs, Thomas H 8 yrs, Ernest C 4 yrs, Allan G 3 yrs;
McDonald Albert 16 yrs, Percy 12 yrs.
Making a total of 16 pupils at hand at once and each family have still younger children.
The most suitable place for the school is on Mr and Mrs McKeown's land and he will be happy to give a piece for that purpose.
Should you decide not to establish a provisional but a House School here every accommodation both for School and Teacher can be easily obtained at Mr Moubeys (sic) who have an abundance of room for the purpose, but you will gather that a Provisional School would be much preferrable in every respect.
The parents would prefer a MALE Teacher as there would be many boy pupils.
Breelong West is the East Side of the Castlereagh River if you have passed Moubeys (sic) house.
I have the honor to apologize for using this paper but there is no other foolscap paper in Gilgandra.
I have the honor to be Sir Your obedient Servant, A J Ingle. J K Smith Esq, Dubbo.  

Proposed site for Breelong West Provisional School
Breelong West, 9th Nov. 1891.
The Hon. The Minister Public Instruction Sydney.
Sir, In acknowledging the receipt of your communication dated 30th Oct, I beg on behalf of the residents of this district to notify you of our acceptance of the conditions which you have submitted to us under which we may be provided with a teacher.
We feel however that the number of children in the neighbourhood will fully warrant the establishment of a provisional school in the near future and are therefore quite willing that the ? should be ? as suggested by you.
We have ? ourselves and the necessary preparations have already been made so we trust that a teacher may be appointed without delay.
A school-room and suitable furniture are ready; and the teacher's salary will be supplemented in the manner required as stated in your communication to B/91.12.193; in guarantee whereof the parents of the intending pupils have hereunder affixed their names. ? Yours ? John McKeown.
Signatures of guarantors. John McKeown, Peter McDonald, John Mawbey, James Lewis. Date stamped Dept of Public Instruction 17 Nov 91 * 59342.

Grace Mawbey, 16 - murdered
Hilda Mawbey, 11 - murdered
PERCY MAWBEY, 14 (murdered)

The Sydney Morning Herald, Tuesday, 24 July 1900

Albert Mawbey, 9, stated:
"I am 9 years old. I can read and write a little. I am the son of John Mawbey, and resided at Breelong. Last Friday night I went to bed at abour half-past 8 in the back bedroom. Jack Mawbey, whose proper name is George Mawbey, went to bed with me. I think I was asleep, when I was awoke by the voice of a blackfellow singing out, "I will blow your brains out," and stamping his foot.
I jumped out of bed and came out of the door, and saw a blackfellow standing in the middle of the sitting room.
He was big and tall.
 I saw no head.
He had trousers and a shirt on.
I don't know his name, and never saw him before.
He was 'belting' into Percy, hitting him with a rifle or stick.
I don't know rightly what it was.
It was dark, but there was a little light from the fire; there was no candle burning.
Percy was on the floor lying down.
He hit Percy 10 or 12 times.
I was frightened, and ran out over the creek and hid in some bushes for about 10 or 12 minutes.
I then heard screams coming from the house.
I saw no other blackfellows except the one belting Percy.
I then ran on to our old house, to my father and Fred Clarke and Reggie Mawbey, my brother.
I said: "A blackfellow is killing Percy".
Father jumped up out of bed, and ran up this house, where Percy was being killed.
Reg, and Fred ran after him. Reg took his rifle.
I saw no more.
I know Jim Governor, who lives at the camp, about three miles away.
The blackfellow I saw was not like Jimmy Governor.
I did not see my mother when the blackfellow was hitting Percy.
I heard her screaming in her bedroom.
Miss Clarke, was also sleeping in here.
I did not see her.
My sisters, Hilda and Grace Mawbey, were also sleeping in the room with my mother.
Miss Kerz also slept in the room.
Cecil and Garnet, aged 7 and 4, slept in the kitchen.
Percy usually slept in my bedroom in the same bed.
George (Jack) Mawbey, called also Jack said: I am 13 years of age.
I am the son of George Mawbey and live at the house at Breelong with my uncle, John Mawbey.
I remember Friday night.
I went to bed about 7 or 8 with Bert and Percy.
We had undressed and all got into bed.
We were lying in bed talking.
I am sure I did not go to sleep.
Mrs Mawbey always slept in the kitchen with uncle; also Garnet and Cecil sleep there.
I heard Mrs Mawbey say, "Oh, there's a blackfellow. He has hit me on the head with a brick."
She was screaming this out.
Percy ran out of the room.
I lay in bed for a minute and then heard Mrs Mawbey and the girls screaming.
I ran out and saw a blackfellow standing near the back bedroom door.
He was stooping down watching Percy.
I heard another blackfellow's voice outside the house.
It was Jimmy Governor's voice.
I am quite sure. I know it well. I have met Jimmy Governor a dozen times, perhaps more, and have had a good long talk with him.
Jimmy Governor said, "Go on, Jacky. Don't take no notice of them. Dash out their --brains. I have had enough of them."
I was frightened, and ran past Percy into the front bedroom, but the door was fastened.
Afterwards they let me in and Percy was standing looking towards the back of the house with something in his hand, and saying to the blackfellow whom I saw first, and whom I think to be Jackey, "What is it you want?"
Percy said this several times, and then his voice stopped.
After that he screamed.
I got into the front bedroom, and got under the bed. I heard the sound of blows coming from the sitting room. I heard a blackfellow, but which one I don't know, say, "There's another one about somewhere." I then heard a body fall on the floor. I think it was Elsie Clarke.
There was a barefooted blackfellow in the bedroom.
I heard a sound as if he was picking up axes or tomahawks.
Then very shortly I heard Reggie coming in with his rifle.
I then heard Jimmy Governor sing out, before Reggie came, "Come on, Jack, come on."
I came from under the bed, and saw Reggie standing with a lighted match crying, and holding his rifle. Reggie said, "Oh, here's poor little Jack," meaning me.
I left the house after uncle came in and Reggie went from the front of the house towards the creek and found Miss Kerz this side of the creek, lying dead. Uncle and Reggie carried her up to the house. Some time I saw uncle bring Hilda's body in.
About two weeks ago I went to the blacks' camp about three miles from here.
I saw there Jimmy Governor and two other blackfellows.
The blackfellow in custody was not there.
I also saw a white woman, Jimmy's wife.
I have seen the blackfellow Jack Porter outside the court.
I don't think he was one of the two blacks I saw with Jimmy Governor at the camp.
I was under the bed when the bedroom door was smashed in.
When I came out from under the bed the window was open. After I got into the bedroom I heard somebody smashing in the door.